Volume 5.35 | Sep 19

Prostate Cell News 5.35 September 19, 2014
Prostate Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
CtBP2 Modulates the Androgen Receptor to Promote Prostate Cancer Progression
Researchers report the identification of multiple androgen receptor binding sites in the gene encoding the transcription factor CtBP2, genetic variations of which have been associated to prostate cancer susceptibility. [Cancer Res] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
LABORATORY RESEARCH

Inhibition of NF-Kappa B Signaling Restores Responsiveness of Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells to Anti-Androgen Treatment by Decreasing Androgen Receptor-Variant Expression
Researchers show that the activation of classical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling increases the expression of androgen receptor splicing variants (ARVs) in prostate cancer (PCa) cells and converts androgen-sensitive PCa cells to become androgen-insensitive, whereas downregulation of NF-κB signaling inhibits ARV expression and restores responsiveness of castration-resistant prostate cancer to anti-androgen therapy. [Oncogene] Abstract

WNT5A Has Anti-Prostate Cancer Effects In Vitro and Reduces Tumor Growth in the Skeleton In Vivo
Using different osteotropic human prostate cancer cell lines, the influence of WNT5A overexpression and knockdown on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis was assessed. In vitro, WNT5A overexpression induced prostate cancer cell apoptosis and reduced proliferation and migration, whereas WNT5A knock-down showed opposite effects. [J Bone Miner Res] Abstract

Supraphysiological Androgen Levels Induce Cellular Senescence in Human Prostate Cancer Cells through the Src-Akt Pathway
Scientists describe that supraphysiological levels of androgens induce cell cycle arrest and markers of cellular senescence in human prostate cancer cells, which may in part explain the growth inhibitory role of androgens. [Mol Cancer] Full Article

Targeting IL-6 and RANKL Signaling Inhibits Prostate Cancer Growth in Bone
Using the human prostate cancer cell line, PC3, scientists identified two novel signaling pathways acting between cells of the osteoblast lineage and cancer cells. Exposure to RANKL stimulated the expression and release of IL-6 by PC3 cells in vitro. [Clin Exp Metastasis] Abstract

Epibrassinolide-Induced Apoptosis Regardless of p53 Expression via Activating Polyamine Catabolic Machinery, a Common Target for Androgen Sensitive and Insensitive Prostate Cancer Cells
Researchers previously showed that epibrassinolide (EBR) induced apoptosis by activating polyamine catabolic pathway, which lead to the accumulation of cytotoxic compounds such as hydrogen peroxide and aldehydes in LNCaP and DU 145 prostate cancer cells. However, they found that LNCaP prostate cancer cells expressing functional androgen receptor (AR) was found more sensitive to EBR than those with non-functional AR. [Prostate] Abstract

Viriditoxin Regulates Apoptosis and Autophagy via Mitotic Catastrophe and Microtubule Formation in Human Prostate Cancer Cells
Viriditoxin (VDT) produced dose-dependent cytotoxicity against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with VDT promoted both apoptosis and autophagy in LNCaP cells. [Int J Oncol] Abstract

Amyloid Precursor Protein Regulates Migration and Metalloproteinase Gene Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells
Scientists explored a pathophysiological role for amyloid precursor protein (APP) in prostate cancer cells using siRNA targeting APP (siAPP). The proliferation and migration of LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells were significantly suppressed by siAPP. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

Immediate and Transient Phosphorylation of the Heat Shock Protein 27 Initiates Chemoresistance in Prostate Cancer Cells
Researchers investigated the effects of heat shock protein (HSP)27 phosphorylation on prostate cancer cell growth underlying docetaxel treatment. Cell counting revealed significantly reduced cell growth during docetaxel treatment as a result of both activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and protein kinase D1, and, most importantly, the overexpression of the phosphorylation-mimicking mutant HSP27-3D. [Oncol Rep] Abstract

Association of Increased Levels of TGF-β1 and p14ARF in Prostate Carcinoma Cell Lines Overexpressing Egr-1
Scientists examined the effect of the overexpression of early growth response gene (Egr-1) on transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) and p14ARF levels, in PC-3 and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cell lines. [Oncol Rep] Abstract

CLINICAL RESEARCH

Cabozantinib in Chemotherapy-Pretreated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Results of a Phase II Nonrandomized Expansion Study
Cabozantinib, an oral inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases such as MET and VEGFR2, was evaluated in a Phase II nonrandomized expansion study in castration-resistant prostate cancer. [J Clin Oncol] Abstract

Circulating Tumor Cell Telomerase Activity as a Prognostic Marker for Overall Survival in SWOG 0421: A Phase III Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer Trial
Researchers hypothesized that circulating tumor cells (CTC) telomerase activity (TA) may be prognostic of overall survival in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. To test this, they used a novel Parylene-C slot microfilter to measure live CTC TA in S0421, a Phase III SWOG-led therapeutic trial. [Int J Cancer] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Emerging Mechanisms of Enzalutamide Resistance in Prostate Cancer
The authors describe the different ways through which cancer cells can become resistant to enzalutamide, such as androgen receptor (AR) truncation and other mutations, as well as by-pass of the AR dependence of prostate cancer cells through expression of the glucocorticoid receptor. [Nat Rev Urol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the prostate cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
OncoGenex Announces Completion of Patient Enrollment in the Phase III AFFINITY Trial of Custirsen in Combination with Cabazitaxel/Prednisone as Second-Line Chemotherapy in Men with Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer
OncoGenex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that patient enrollment has been completed in the Phase III AFFINITY trial. The international, randomized, open-label Phase III AFFINITY trial is designed to evaluate the potential of custirsen to improve survival outcomes in approximately 630 men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. [OncoGenex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Bayer and Orion Initiate Phase III Trial of Novel Prostate Cancer Agent ODM-201 in Men with High-Risk Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Bayer HealthCare and Orion Corporation have begun to enroll patients in a Phase III trial with ODM-201, an investigational novel oral androgen receptor inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer. [Bayer AG] Press Release

Minomic Launches US Pilot Study of MiStat™ Novel Prostate Cancer Screening Technology
Minomic International Ltd launched an important US trial of its MiStat™ prostate cancer screening test, planning to achieve US Food and Drug Administration regulatory approval upon completion. Minomic’s proprietary MiStat™ technology is a screening assay capable of identifying the presence of a proprietary biomarker known as the MIL-38 antigen. [Minomic International Ltd (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW XXII Congress of the European Society of Gene and Cell Therapy (ESGCT)
October 23-26, 2014
The Hague, The Netherlands

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the prostate cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellows and Graduate Student Positions (Vancouver Prostate Centre)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Prostate Oncobiology (Cancer Research UK – Manchester Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer and Radiation Biology (Thomas Jefferson University)

Postdoctoral Position – Prostate Cancer Research (Umeå University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Prostate Metastasis Evolution (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)

Postdoctoral Fellowship Position – Cancer Immunology (Cornell University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Prostate Cancer (Cleveland Clinic)

Postdoctoral Position – Molecular Physiology in Prostate Cancer (Duke Molecular Physiology Institute)

Scientist – Prostate Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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