Volume 4.16 | May 3

Prostate Cell News 4.16 May 3, 2013
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
p63-Expressing Cells Are the Stem Cells of Developing Prostate, Bladder, and Colorectal Epithelia
Researchers found that NH2-terminal truncated tumor protein p63-positive cells of the urogenital sinus generated all epithelial lineages of the prostate and bladder, indicating that these cells represent the stem/progenitor cells of those epithelia during development. [Proc Natl Sci Acad USA] Abstract | Full Article

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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

LABORATORY RESEARCH

Androgen-Responsive Long Noncoding RNA CTBP1-AS Promotes Prostate Cancer
The authors report an androgen-responsive long non-coding RNA, CTBP1-AS, located in the antisense (AS) region of C-terminal binding protein 1 (CTBP1), which is a corepressor for androgen receptor. CTBP1-AS is predominantly localized in the nucleus and its expression is generally upregulated in prostate cancer. [EMBO J] Abstract

Recruitment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Prostate Tumors Promotes Metastasis
Scientists showed that CXCL16, a ligand for CXCR6, facilitates mesenchymal stem cell or very small embryonic-like cells recruitment into prostate tumors. CXCR6 signaling stimulates the conversion of mesenchymal stem cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts, which secrete stromal-derived factor-1, also known as CXCL12. [Nat Commun]
Abstract | Press Release

The Role of Sarcosine Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression
Investigators examined the role of key enzymes associated with sarcosine metabolism in prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Consistent with their earlier report, sarcosine levels were significantly elevated in PCa urine sediments compared to controls, with a modest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71. [Neoplasia] Full Article

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Affect the Localization and Signaling of PIP3/AKT in Prostate Cancer Cells
Researchers showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modify phospholipid content. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω3 PUFA, can replace the fatty acid at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone, thereby changing the species of phospholipids. DHA also inhibits AKTT308 but not AKTS473 phosphorylation, alters PI(3,4,5)P3 (phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP)3) and phospho-AKTS473 protein localization, decreases pPDPK1S241-AKT and AKT-BAD interaction, and suppresses prostate tumor growth. [Carcinogenesis] Abstract

Polar Biophenolics in Sweet Potato Greens Extract Synergize to Inhibit Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation and In Vivo Tumor Growth
The authors report a bioactivity-guided fractionation of sweet potato greens extract based upon differential solvent polarity using chromatographic techniques that led to the identification of a remarkably active polyphenol-enriched fraction, F5, which was ~100-fold more potent than the parent extract as shown by IC50 measurements in human prostate cancer cells. [Carcinogenesis] Abstract

Deletion of p21/Cdkn1a Confers Protective Effect against Prostate Tumorigenesis in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate Model
Employing a genetic approach, transgenic mice harboring p21/Cdkn1a homozygous deletion were crossed with the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate mice to characterize in vivo consequences of p21Cip1/Waf1 (p21) deletion on prostate tumorigenesis. [Cell Cycle] Abstract

Constitutively Active Androgen Receptor Variants Upregulate Expression of Mesenchymal Markers in Prostate Cancer Cells
N-cadherin expression was analyzed in LNCaP cells overexpressing the wild type androgen receptor (AR) or a constitutively active AR variant by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. Scientists showed for the first time that N-cadherin expression was increased in the presence of constitutively active AR variants. [PLoS One] Full Article

Proteolytic Cleavage and Truncation of NDRG1 in Human Prostate Cancer Cells, but Not Normal Prostate Epithelial Cells
N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) phosphorylation is associated with inhibition of metastasis and western blots indicate two bands at ~41 and ~46 kDa. Previous investigations by others suggest the higher band is due to NDRG1 phosphorylation. However, the current study using a dephosphorylation assay and the Phos-tag SDS-PAGE assay, demonstrated the 46 kDa NDRG1 protein band was not due to phosphorylation. [Biosci Rep]
Abstract | Full Article

CLINICAL RESEARCH

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Expression in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 8610
The authors explored the potential of VEGF as a prognostic and predictive biomarker among men with locally advanced prostate cancer. They revealed no statistically significant prognostic or predictive value of VEGF expression for locally advanced prostate cancer. [Radiat Oncol]
Abstract | Full Article

Statin Use in Relation to Prostate Cancer Outcomes in a Population-Based Patient Cohort Study
Researchers investigated associations between statin use begun before prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and PCa recurrence/progression and PCa-specific mortality (PCSM) in a prospective, population-based cohort study. Statin use begun before PCa diagnosis was unrelated to PCa recurrence/progression but was associated with a decrease in risk of PCSM. [Prostate] Abstract | Press Release

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REVIEWS

Circulating MicroRNAs as Potential New Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer
This review aims to summarize the current understanding of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in prostate cancer patients and their potential role as biomarkers. [Brit J Cancer] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the prostate cell research field.

SCIENCE NEWS
Myriad to Present New Molecular Data for Patients with Prostate Cancer at the American Urological Association 2013 Annual Meeting
Myriad Genetics, Inc. highlighted new clinical data on the PROLARIS 46-gene cell cycle progression signature in patients with prostate cancer. The clinical studies being presented focus on PROLARIS test results in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy or who were treated with external beam radiation therapy. [Press release from Myriad Genetics, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the American Urological Association 2013 Annual Meeting, San Diego] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS

AUA Releases New Clinical Guideline on Prostate Cancer Screening
Men ages 55 to 69 who are considering prostate cancer screening should talk with their doctors about the benefits and harms of testing and proceed based on their personal values and preferences, according to a new clinical practice guideline released by the American Urological Association (AUA). [American Urological Association] Press Release

Prostate Cancer Research Provided Funding
A $1-million multi-investigation grant from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas has given graduate and undergraduate students at The University of Texas at El Paso an opportunity to spend more time in the research lab while providing critical research on alternative treatments of prostate cancer. [The Prospector] Press Release

POLICY NEWS

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

EVENTS

NEW Cell Signaling in Metabolism, Inflammation and Cancer
September 2-6, 2013
Suzhou, China

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the prostate cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

NEW Principal Investigator – Prostate Carcinogenesis (INSERM)

PhD Studentship – Investigation into Chemokine Receptor Induced Cell Migration (University of East Anglia)

PhD Studentship – The Role of STEAP2 in Prostate Cancer Invasion and Metastasis (Swansea University)

Researcher – Prostate Cancer (Prostate Cancer UK)

Postdoctoral Position – Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms of Advanced Prostate Cancer (Cleveland Clinic)

Research Fellow – Medical Ultrasound (University of Dundee)


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